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Less than half the population reached adulthood.

Points to Ponder

An uncertain economy. Throughout Europe, the economy was uncertain at best. At its worst, it triggered poverty. Within a century, there was not enough land to meet the needs of all the people. The population throughout Europe, but especially in England, was exploding. Consequently, rural areas were overcrowded, and the cities became even more overcrowded and dangerous. Dangerous standards of living in urban and rural areas. Due to the overpopulation problem, rural areas were overcrowded, and the cities became even more overcrowded and dangerous. As one famous Russian traveler - Peter the Great - noted in The narrow streets were piled with garbage and filth which could be dropped freely from any overhanging window.

Even the main avenues were dark and airless because greedy builders, anxious to gain more space, had projected upper stories out over the street. Through these Traffic congestion was monumental. Lines of carriages and hackney cabs cut deep ruts into the streets so that passengers inside were tossed about, arriving breathless, nauseated and sometime bruised.

When two coaches met in a narrow street, fearful arguments ensued London was a violent city with coarse, cruel pleasures which quickly crushed the unprotected innocent. For women, the age of consent was twelve it remained twelve in England until Crimes were common and in some parts of the city people could not sleep for the cries of 'Murder! Public floggings were a popular sight, and executions drew vast crowds. On 'Hanging Day,' workmen, shopkeepers and apprentices left their jobs to jam the streets, joking and laughing, and hoping to catch a glimpse of the condemned's face. Wealthy ladies and gentlemen paid for places in windows and balconies overlooking the route from Newgate Prison to Tyburn, where executions took place The most ghastly execution was the penalty for treason: hanging, drawing and quartering.

The condemned man was strung up until he was almost dead from strangulation, then cut down, disemboweled while still alive, beheaded, and his trunk was then chopped into quarters.

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Sports were heavily stained with blood. Crowds paid to see bulls and bears set upon by enraged mastiffs; often the teeth of the bear had been filed down and the cornered beast could only swat with his great paws at the mastiffs that leaped and tore at him. Cockfights attracted gamblers, and large purses were wagered on the specially trained fowl. Robert K. Massie, Peter the Great, pp. Child victimization. In addition to outrageous mortality rates for European children due to exposure, disease, and malnutrition, poor children were also victims of abandonment, slavery, and infanticide.

To relieve overcrowding in homes, English parents often sent their children to live as servants where many often became victims of assault, rape, and even murder. Europeans were intolerant of non-Catholic religions, of people who were different, and of the poor. Largely as a result of the reformation, religious warfare became a regular feature of 16th Century Europe. Additionally, political and economic warfare wracked the continent.

The most celebrated of these conflicts involved Spain and England in a religious, political, and economic battle. An idealistic image of the "New World. Goal 4: To understand the changing role of religion in 16th century Europe and how it impacted European immigration to the "New World".

Religions and religious affiliations have been evolving for thousands of years. In the last years, since the beginning of Christianity, we have witnessed many changes in religion - many of which have led to conflict and even war. This was the status of religion in Europe at the beginning of the 16th century. But it was greatly complicated by the political status in Europe.


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At the beginning of the 16th century, the political power of the kings was increasing in most Western European nations. As we have already learned, much of Europe was fragmented into many German principalities, duchies and cities, known collectively as the Holy Roman Empire.

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Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic church had taught Luther that people received salvation through their faith in God and their own good works on earth.


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But Luther felt he, and most ordinary people, were incapable of leading the kind of life that merited salvation. Luther turned to the Bible and gradually became convinced that God did not require men and women to earn salvation, but rather that salvation came by faith alone. Once people believed they had such faith, moral behavior was possible and salvation was inevitable. By , Luther was especially troubled by an increasingly popular church practice - the selling of indulgences - a donation to the church that Catholics paid after confessing their sins to a priest and doing an assigned act of devotion.

Over time, it even became possible to purchase an indulgence for the dead. The Dominican Friar John Tetzel, who was in charge of selling indulgences in Germany, used this popular advertizing slogan to sell indulgences: "As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. The Theses all related to Luther's dispute over the sale of indulgences. Word of Luther's Theses spread throughout the crowd that day and soon, many people called for their translation into German. A student copied Luther's Latin text and then translated the document and sent it to the university press; from there it spread throughout Germany.

Later, Luther wrote a letter to the Archbishop of Mainz protesting indulgences and explaining his criticisms of other church practices.


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After receiving Luther's letter, the archbishop sent it to Pope Leo X. Before the pope could react, however, the "Ninety-Five Theses" became a sensation among the German people who were stunned that Luther had challenged the pope and the church. Luther took full advantage of the newest technology in Europe to inform Germans of his ideas - movable type printing press developed by Johann Gutenberg.

He and other pamphleteers who were increasingly called Protestants began publishing a steady stream of pamphlets criticizing the church. The Protestant Reformation had begun and soon began to spread throughout Europe. Protestants argued for the following reforms:. In January , Pope Leo threatened to excommunicate Luther, but because he had become a hero to so many Germans, he instead agreed to summon him to an assembly of German nobles headed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

There, all his books and pamphlets were piled before Luther. After he admitted to writing them, he was asked to recant and subsequently refused.

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Luther then went into hiding for a year when he wrote and published more pamphlets criticizing the church and began translating the New Testament into German so all literate persons could read the word of God for themselves. He returned to Wittenberg in and continued to preach the first Protestant religion known as Lutheranism.

He died at the age of 63 in During the s, disputes arose between Luther and other Protestants over many religious issues. For instance, the issue of whether or not infants should be baptized caused a formal split, with those disagreeing with Luther becoming known as the Anabaptists - those against infant baptism.

One of the biggest splits was between Luther and John Calvin. John Calvin and Calvinism. Thus, man was predestined for either Heaven or Hell and could do nothing to alter his fate. He argued that while good works were not required to go to Heaven - as the Catholic Church decreed - good works did serve a purpose by acting as a divine sign that the individual was making the best of their life on earth.

He further argued that some people had been "called" by God to do a certain thing on earth. Some men and women who seemed ill-fitted for life on earth were greedy, lazy and immoral. A whistleblower report released on Thursday said President Donald Trump not only abused his office in attempting to solicit Ukraine's interference in the U.

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